Indian Navy’s Growing Power: Implications for Pakistan Navy

5

Background

The growing might of Indian Navy is a cause of concern for Pakistan’s naval strategists. Pakistan unlike India possesses a short coastline, and maritime territory, but due to its proximity to strait of Hormuz, one of the most robust and busy sea lanes of the world, famous for its oil trade, the significance of Pakistan maritime territory is more than Indian maritime territory. In 1971, Pakistani merchant fleet was obliterated by the Indian Navy assaults on non-combatant ships, reliving the notorious legends of U-[1]Boat assaults on British and US Navy merchant fleets in first and second world wars. The post 1971 offers Pakistan to look outside Karachi and develop farther posts for ship and submarine basing, to thwart any prospect of blockade by the Indian Navy. Pakistan Navy successfully emerges from a fledging force to a fighting machine, with developing more naval bases away from Indian Naval reach. But Indian growing economy is resulting in its acquisition of more and more naval war fighting platforms, to neutralize any long term advantage of the Pak Navy.

Indian Navy PINPOINT Acquisition:

Undersea Warfare Domain:

Having at relatively disadvantageous position vis-à-vis Pakistan Navy in Undersea Warfare, Indian Navy accelerated its acquisition of various Anti-Submarine Warfare platforms, ranging from Sea-based to Air, their acquisition of such advanced naval platforms will definitely have negative impact on Pakistan’s edge against India in undersea domain. The development of INS Kamorta[2] and INS Kadmatt and upcoming 2 ships of the Kamorta Class stealth corvettes (INS Kitan & INS Kavarati), are the most advanced ships to track down undersea objects and eliminate them. The Indian Navy plans to pit a stealth surface corvettes against enemy subs, is a short and long term plan as well, short term in a sense that Indian navy have old fledging submarines, and submarine building will take years, to fix, that problem, Indian Navy is commissioning its home grown fleet of ships into its surface fleet. These advanced ships are contributing to Indian Navy’s lethality and will effect Pakistan naval calculations in any future encounter with India.

Naval Air Arm:

Indian Navy traditionally lacked a superior technology in its naval air arm to disturb Pakistan Air Sea calculations, and detection of its submarines, hidden under the depth of oceans, but the new Boeing P-8I Poseidon[3]  coupled with Kamorta class submarines, will definitely effect Pakistani submarine operations in the Arabian Sea, or its more extended area of operations, for intelligence gathering. The Poseidon is the most advanced Naval Air reconnaissance aircraft in the world. Pakistan with its Lockheed P-3 Orion is successfully conducting its routine operations, and was in advantageous position vis-à-vis India, but the presence of Poseidon, will affect this edge enjoyed by Pakistan naval Air Arm.

Surface Fleet Renovation.

The Indian Navy from past ten years is busy in updating and replacing its entire surface fleet with make in India technology. The latest Kolkata Class destroyers are the proof that Indian Navy successfully developed and deployed one of the most advanced ships in its naval fleet. The Kolkata are a class of stealth guided missile destroyers built by the Indian Navy, two of the ships of the Kolkata Class INS Kolkata and Kochi are already commissioned in the Indian Navy, and third and final one will be commissioned in the latter half of the 2016. These destroyers which are stealth as well will add further muscle, confidence and flexibility to the Navy’s operational plans. The recently approved continental shelf by the UNCLOS[4], not just expanded Pakistan maritime footprints but added an additional responsibility to Pakistan’s Sea defenders to come up with a force that cannot just protect its territorial waters but also ensure their presence along the expanded Pakistani maritime territory to regulate the SLOCs traversing Pakistani continental shelf. Pakistan is said to have the largest amount of shale oil and gas, beneath its seabed. This factor alone can contribute to attracting potential aggressors like India which can deeply its growing naval power, and can disrupt Pakistani plans to extract its ocean wealth.

Naval Propulsion/ Aircraft carriers and SSBNs

Indian Navy from the beginning started operating the first Aircraft carrier in the form of INS Vikrant, which played a key role in the blockade imposed by Indian Navy on Pakistan. The Ex Royal Navy ship was decommissioned in 1997 by the Indian Navy, but the Indian Naval planners thought that it will be folly to lose the experience which they gained from operating an aircraft carrier, thus they decided to buy the decommissioned ship the ex-Admiral Ghorshkov and later renamed as Baku. Thus they started negotiations with India to transform Baku expanded deck into an air strip for its Mig 29, the project took almost 2 decades, and three Government tenures, but finally the Baku was re-commissioned in the Indian Navy INS Vikramaditya[5], with its addition, the Indian navy can produce a 500 km air surveillance bubble, complicating and disrupting Pakistan Navy’s area of operation. The new Indian Navy SSBNs INS Chakra and others possess a serious threat to the Pakistan diesel and air independent propulsion submarines, because in conflict scenario, Nuclear propelled ship and submarine, can sustain much longer than traditionally fuelled submarine or ship. The naval propulsion will add further lethality to Indian Navy, because they will remain active in the conflict area much longer than the Pakistani navy.

Conclusion:

The rapid economic boom of India resulted in its expansion of naval fleet, on the context that India wants to confront the growing prowess of Chinese Navy in its backyard. But Indian Naval expansion is eroding the naval stability in the region. Pakistan cannot beef up the naval acquisition because of its fledging economy. The debt stricken country needs to spend wisely and reinvigorate its economy, so that naval stability can be maintained against the traditional foes. Pakistan’s expanded maritime footprints and the development of Gwadar port, expansion of its future maritime trade and its proximity to various naval and maritime chokepoints, Pakistan needs a robust presence in the Arabian Sea and beyond. The Combined Task Force CTF-151[6] is a good contribution to fill the traditional absence in the far seas, but Pakistan needs to beef up the construction and acquisition of various naval platforms to maintain stability in the waters.

References:

[1] Branfill-Cook, Roger. Torpedo: The Complete History of the World’s Most Revolutionary Naval Weapon.

[1]”Indian Navy to Get Four New Destroyers | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis.” Dna. 2009. Accessed April 13, 2016. http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-indian-navy-to-get-four-new-destroyers-1239890.

[1] “Indian Ocean: India Deploys New Sub-Killer Planes to Counter Chinese Subs.” The Diplomat. Accessed April 13, 2016. http://thediplomat.com/2016/01/indian-ocean-india-deploys-new-sub-killer-planes-to-counter-chinese-subs/.

[1] “Pakistan Granted Extension of Continental Shelf: FO – The Express Tribune.” The Express Tribune. 2015. Accessed April 13, 2016. http://tribune.com.pk/story/856375/pakistan-granted-extension-of-continental-shelf-fo/.

[1] “Antony to Commission INS Vikramaditya in Russia.” Antony to Commission INS Vikramaditya in Russia. Accessed April 13, 2016. http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/antony-to-commission-ins-vikramaditya-in-russia-113111401346_1.html

[1] Khan, Muhammad Azam, and Ayesha Ijaz. “THE INDIAN OCEAN, UNITED STATES AND PAKISTAN NAVY.” IPRI Journal XII, no. 2 (2012): 35-57.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comments

comments

is a freelance writer, geopolitical issues interests him the most. He can be reached at aspirant2011@rocketmail.com.

Discussion5 Comments

  1. It’s still funny Pakistan. Considers India as a competitor while the latter has moved its focus on China. While I see India growing Pakistan with its 10th century religious attitude is going backwards day by day

  2. As the CPEC comes into fruition injecting life into Gwadar, it is absolutely imperative that PAKISTAN focus on securing her coastal borders and provide security structure to trade ships.

    Requires heavy investment into a formidable navy, this is paramount.

    Better facilities for foreign trade ships not only port side but amenities like hotels restaurants and security on land.

    We need bullet trains connecting Gwadar to Kashgar with key business parks in major cities across Balochistan, Sindh Punjab and Azad Kashmir linked to the CPEC.

    Specialised subsidised training for young graduates in all areas to ensure the smooth operation of the CPEC:

    1. Technocratic managerial approach as opposed to who you know.
    2. Invest in engineering skills
    3. Invest in IT skills
    4. Train the young in better professional administrative skills.
    5. Invest in technology
    6. Build manufacturing hubs along the CPEC. Raw material from China for heavy duty manufacturing can be assembled in Pakistan. Pakistan has the best and strongest labour force in the world.
    7. Invest in sourcing business that can source new opportunities for investor companies.
    8. Better ways of sourcing and transporting an abundance in raw material to build good quality products or ready for distribution.
    9. I mentioned this earlier but build business parks to invite foreign countries to invest and set up business in Pakistan along the CPEC.
    10. Recruit new security people with state of the art technology and surveillance along the CPEC to ensure security.
    11. New Army garrisons reported to ensure security of CPEC need to be set up at key places along the CPEC to ensure rapid response.
    12. Think hard about creating new jobs for “local” people. Don’t think about profits ensure continued reinvestment into CPEC.
    13. When inviting foreign companies don’t be surprised if European companies don’t come straight away. Focus on ASEAN companies with exclusion of India.
    14. Do not for a moment drop your guard on India. If any nation needs to receive MFN it is China.

    Make the coming decade Pakistan’s decade.

    I have travelled and looked at many people but when I look at Pakistan I see more. More interms of potential, we gave a beautiful heritage and need to focus heavily on our tourism industry to. Invest in better places to invite people to visit for a holiday. The Dubai model from a cost perspective can never be replicated but you can learn much from it. Dubai was and is culturally historically bankrupt unlike the rich heritage of Pakistan we need to promote like our Indus Civilisation, Bhuddist past and our great Mughal heritage. We have amazing natural beauty that is virtually unheard of on the West.

    We can do so much with Pakistan.

    But all things begin with a safe and secure Pakistan with better infrastructure.

  3. Robert,

    We Pakistanis don’t view India as a competition as a nation that is 5 times the size of Pakistan that inherited the British Raj and did NOT distribute her wealth equally with the newly independent Pakistan.

    You sir are mistaken to assume Pakistan and India were of equal footings.

    Rather Pakistan ability to resist Indian threat and hegemony has been exemplary.

    Bravo Pakistan.

    I think I will call myself Roberto…

    Just like Robert I am not Caucasian though 🙂

  4. INS Chakra is a Akula Class SSN and not SSBN. The Indian SSBNs are the Arihant Class (a derivative mix of the Borei/Delta Class of Russia).

    As you should know, SSBNs are always accompanied by an SSN to mount rapid response to a threat (SSN reactors tend to power up and down quickly as SSN needs speed, while SSBN is like an ambush machine with reactor geared towards endurance and not speed).

    The 6 submarine Indian SSN program is a separate program that will mostly have a 130-150 MW reactor driven 7-8,000 ton submarines to be deployed by 2028-2030 at the earliest (there are issues with reactor design, maraging steel etc.)

    Indian Navy modernization to a three carrier Blue Water Navy (capable of one global projection from the current multi-region projection capability) is underway despite fits and starts. The 24 corvette building plan, sub listening stations, 50 odd S-70 ASW helicopters with drones to complement the P-8/IL-38s are underway. With Pak acquiring S-20s, this is even more critical. The Indian Defence Minister Parrikar recently announced a domestic SSK building program targeting at least 15-20 subs.

    In the ASuW, Destroyers approaching 10,000 tons, 10-12 extra frigates, 4 helicopter carriers are also underway targeting a proper Naval capability by 2030 realistically.

  5. Another factual error, the Kamorta class is a corvette and not submarine.

    for what it is worth, the P-3 gave PN no particular advantage but definitely countervailing capability. India had IL-38s that were upgraded regularly to ensure in tandem with the Sea Harriers and shore based MiG-29s could help IN counter the P-3 more than adequately.

    Ofcourse, as noted the 12 P-8s with addition of Predator/Guardian or Triton (most likely 22 Guardian drones for 2 bil US$) offsets the threat of the P-3C in a regional context.

    For the Chinese navy in the IOR it is a different issue altogether. That will be a much more serious threat.

Leave A Reply