Genesis of Pakistan Resolution and Post-1947 India for Muslims

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The Lahore city has been the most historic city before the advent of Islam. The city beheld many a fall and rise of conquerors, revolt, bloodshed and the downfall of dynasties. However, the city even witnessed a revolution where around 100 million Muslims of the subcontinent vowed to wage a legitimate struggle for the establishment of a sovereign independent piece of land for them, as it was held in the historic place of Lahore; Minto Park on March 23, 1940.
The resolving power for the institution of a separate nation for the Muslims of British India approved at the annual session of the All-India Muslim League held in Lahore on 22-24 March 1940. It is a revolutionary document of Pakistan’s antiquity. Nonetheless, the resolution manifests the transformation of the Muslim minority in British India into a distinctive nation with its distinguishing socio-ethnic, a sense of history, political culture and shared objectives for the future contained by a territory. Nonetheless, the Pakistan resolution is the ultimate success of the Two-Nation Theory that was proposed by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Even Sheik Ahmed Sirhindi and Shah Wali Ullah also believed that Muslims and Hindus are discrete nations from all particulars.
The Pakistan Resolution passed unanimously when the political and economic condition deteriorated.  The All India National Congress establishment in 1885 rooted the sense of insecurity among the Muslims. The congress claimed that the party would safeguard the interest of Muslims and Hindus equally in front of British Officers. Muslims due to lack of advance knowledge and education could not meet the requirements of the politics or score higher officers posts. Congress took advantage of this and represented Hindus only.
Several Hindu nationalist movements fuelled up the antagonism in Hindus against the Muslims. Hindu Mahasabha launched the Shuddi movement. The aim of the movement was to convert Muslims into Hindu school of faith. The Sanghtan movement was another movement launched to spread violence against the Muslims across the sub-continent. Apart from these activities, the Congress adopted the unconstitutional ways to rule the provinces; their actions were not according to the parliamentary act 1935. During the congress rule, Muslims of India faced uncountable atrocities, the congress started to disgrace and crush the popularity of only Muslim political party; All India Muslim League. Hoisting of three coloured flags, damaging and grabbing the Muslim’s properties. The song Bande Mataram imposed on the Muslims too, that disregarded the verses and used them against Muslims.
The above events and some other were collectively the reason due to which Muslims demanded a separate state for them where they can practice their social-ethnic and religious traditions. Unfortunately, uncountable Muslims did not migrate to the newly created country, and now they are confronting the slavery. However, in several states, they were declared as untouched inhabitants of the country. The Muslims of India are regarded as Dalit- Muslims (untouchable Muslims), according to an article published on BBC World.
 Ejaz Ali, the leader of an organisation representing socially deprived Muslims.
The overwhelming majority – 75% – of the contemporary Indian Muslim population and are baptised as the Dalit Muslims.
According to the census of 2011 in India, the Muslim community comprises of 14.4 percent of total population of India, roughly 174 million people. Instead of holding a prominent place in India, Muslims are yet regarded as minorities. India is the world’s third country in terms of mass Muslim population, after Pakistan and Indonesia. Nonetheless, the tyranny against Muslims in India is unconcealed; it prevailed in the Indian society before independence. More than 10,000 people were killed in Hindu-Muslim riots since 1950. There are several motives for violence against Muslims in India, including the religious resentments, the strategies of British colonisers, the creation of an Islamic country; Pakistan. Several intellectuals believe that Hindu nationalists and violence promoting political parties have contributed in the widespread agitation against the Muslims in elite regions of India. The riots, which are noticeable after 1947, martyred several thousand Muslims.  The most prominent insurgencies in India are;
•    1969 Gujarat riots
•    1980 Moradabad riots
•    1983 Nellie massacre
•    1985 Gujarat riots
•    1987 Hashimpura massacre
•    1989 Bhagalpur violence
•    Demolition of the Babri Masjid
•    1992 Bombay Riots
•    2002 Gujarat violence
•    2004 Jalna Mosque bomb attack
•    2006 Vadodara riots
•    2006 Malegaon bombings
•    Mecca Masjid bombing
•    September 2008 bombings
•    2013 Muzaffarnagar riots
•    2014 Assam Violence
•    Pune techie murder case
•    2015 Dadri mob lynching
•    2016 Jharkhand mob lynching
After the independence of Pakistan, the Muslim community has gone through uncountable problematic phases. Thousands of Muslims martyred, mosques, dargahs, Kabristans were demolished or damaged. The most recent cases of murder of Muslims in India are, 2015 Dadri mob killing and in 2016, Jharkhand mob murder.  Such butcheries were totally against the freedom of living in India. In both cases, Muslims were brutally murdered, alleged of eating Beef and slaughter of Cow (Indians considers Cow as their Mother; Gaoo  Maata). After the arrival of Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) ‘s government in India, Hindu- Muslims conflicts are at the peril.
Similarly, the situation of the disputed region of Pakistan and India – Kashmir is obvious. The brutality of Indian troops can never be ignoreed since the partition. The riots intensify time after time and several thousand Kashmiris have martyred, injured, and disappeared. The recent intifada started in January 2016 brought the attention of several countries towards the quarrel. As per 2014, the Muslims population contribute 97.16 %, whereas, 1.84 % Hindus, 0.11% Buddhists and 0.88% Sikhs.
Despite being a Muslim-majority region, the Muslims are the most oppressed ones. According to the recent investigation conducted by the Kashmiri Media Services from the period from 8th July 2016 to 1st December 2016:
    65,000 infrastructures damaged; include houses, shops, etc.
    37 Schools arson by Indian Army
    608 Kashmiris detained by Indian forces
    9,700 Kashmiris arrested
    15 Kashmiris martyred
The above facts illustrate the condition of Muslims in Kashmir in the 21st century. The Indian forces are yet oppressing them. The third intifada depicted the consent of inhabitants of Kashmir that they wanted to become an integral part of Pakistan.
The animosity of Hindus against the Muslims was from the advent of Islam when the Muslims took over the dynasty from the hands of Hindus. However, the verdicts of Indian political parties were gone in vain before the separation, when they wanted to rule the sub-continent alone. Nevertheless, the political insights and faithful earls of Muslim League wrecked the dreams of Hindus by presenting the historical proposal of separation of state and creation of Pakistan. Chaudhry Rehmat Ali’s part is vital in this resolution too, whose slogan was “Now or never” that encouraged the Muslims to take the decision for them. Due to the immense efforts of leaders of Muslim League, we are living in Pakistan with serenity and integrity.

Sana Zehra is a Microbiologist and have keen interest in writing, a patriot and willing to be an aspiring writer.

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